A Proposal for Null-Safety in Dart

October 29, 2011 code dart language

Update 2021/03/03: With the release of Dart 2.12, Dart supports sound null safety. Had to wait about ten years, but I got it!

Page 75 of the current (0.04) draft of the Dart language spec has this note in it:

Should we do something with respect to non-nullable types?

If you asked me, I’d answer a resounding yes! (Alas, no one did, but that’s never stopped me before.) So, here’s my attempt at an answer. I’m posting it here on my blog just to clarify that this is my strawman proposal, and not something that’s got any official Dart or Google stamp of approval on it.

The proposal in a nutshell

By default, all types are non-nullable. If you declare a variable of type int, it is a static error to try to assign null to it. In checked mode, it is a dynamic error to assign null to a non-nullable variable.

You annotate a nullable type by adding ? after the type name. The type int is non-nullable, int? is nullable. Non-null types are a property of Dart’s type system, but (unlike Maybe or option in other languages) not a part of its runtime behavior.

At runtime, Dart continues to work like a dynamic language where any variable may hold a value of any type, including null. “Nullability” is as optional as the rest of Dart’s type system.

Why default to non-nullable?

One of the first decisions a non-null proposal has to make is which is the default: nullable or non-nullable? I prefer defaulting to non-null for a couple of reasons:


A nullable type is essentially the union of the original type and the Null type. In other words, bool? contains all of the values of the bool type (true and false) as well as all of the values of the Null type (null).

Unlike option types, nullable types do not nest. int?? is equivalent to int?. This follows naturally from thinking of it as a union of types. true|false|null is an equivalent set to true|false|null|null. The redundant nulls collapse.


A non-null type is a subtype of its nullable type. In other words, you can always pass a Foo to something that expects a Foo?.

Also, the special Null type is a subtype of every nullable type. This means you can initialize nullable types with null like you’d expect. Since Null is not a subtype of non-nullable types, you cannot initialize those with null. That implies that all variables of non-null types must be initialized. This is an error:

int a;

As is this:

class Point {
  int x, y;

Requiring fields of non-nullable types to be initialized is a challenge in languages like Java and Scala where you can access a field before it’s been initialized in the constructor. Fortunately, Dart already has constructor initialization lists, and they solve this problem handily. We can fix that Point class like so:

class Point {
  int x, y;
  Point() : x = 0, y = 0;

Since the constructor initializers are run before you can access this, we’ve ensured that those fields will be initialized before anyone can see them. Neat.

Working with nullable types

One challenge with nullable types is that working with them can be tedious. With things like Maybe in Haskell and option in ML, you have to manually unwrap the “nullable” value to get at the delicious real value hidden inside.

This proposal doesn’t have that problem (granted, it also doesn’t have some of the benefits of option types). It tries to stick close to Dart’s dynamic sensibilities, so there are no option-like values that you have to extract the real value from using pattern matching.

Instead we rely on the fact that a variable can hold a value of any type. A nullable type just means the type checker won’t yell at you if it knows null is one of those values.

To test for null, you can just do a vanilla if (foo == null) statement.

To go back and forth between nullable and non-nullable types, we rely on assignment compatibility. Dart’s assignment compatibility rules are looser than other languages. Like most, they allow implicit upcasts. Given this:

class Base {}
class Derived extends Base {}

Then this is allowed:

Base b = new Derived();

But Dart also allows implicit downcasts (in other words from supertype to subtype):

Base b = new Derived();
Derived d = b; // Allowed.

(The reasoning here is that many times a downcast will work correctly at runtime, and Dart’s type system is optimistic that you know what you’re doing.)

Thanks to this, nullable types are easy to work with. It is, of course, always safe to go from a non-null type to a nullable one:

int? a = 123;

But it’s equally easy (though not equally safe) to go in the other direction:

int? a = 123;
int b = a; // Allowed.

If you actually want to be safe, you just need to check for null first:

if (a != null) {
  int b = a; // Safe at runtime now too!

So here, as in other places in Dart, the type checker won’t get in your way.

Wait, what good is it?

You couldn’t ask for a less intrusive null-tracking system, but it seems a little too unintrusive. Isn’t silently assigning from a nullable type to a non-nullable one the exact thing we’d want the type checker to flag?

Well, yes, sort of. But Dart’s specified static checker isn’t that strict in general. It also doesn’t flag implicit downcasts, which this is just a special case of. Even without that, I think we still get a lot of mileage out of this:

double(int? i) {
  return i * 2; // Warn that we didn't test i for null first.

double(int? i ) {
  if (i == null) return 0;
  return i * 2; // OK now.

Nullables and generics

A key question that comes up with nullables is how they play with generic types. I’m not a type system expert, so it’s entirely possible that I haven’t thought this all the way through, but I think it falls out correctly from the subtyping between nullable and non-nullable types.

Generics are covariant in Dart. That means that generics also allow subtyping between a nullable and non-nullable type argument. In other words, this is allowed:

List<int?> list = new List<int>();

As long as you use your types in a way that makes covariance safe (i.e. you read from them and don’t write to them) this will work as well for nullable types as it does with subclassing.

The other question is how using a type parameter in an annotation plays with nullability. For example:

class SomeClass<T> {
  T? someField;

This is really beyond the edge of my type system fu, but I think the fact that nullable types flatten (A?? becomes A?) will alleviate some of the nasty corner cases this may lead to. I’m not sure though, and this is definitely something I’d like feedback on.

Two corner cases

There are two types in Dart where nullability will work a little strangely: Null and Object. The former’s behavior is pretty obviously weird. Given that a nullable type is the union of some type and Null, there’s no dinstinction between Null and Null? (since nullability flattens). Likewise, you can’t have a non-nullable Null type (since no possible values could inhabit it).

The other case is a bit more surprising. You can’t have a non-nullable Object type. Object is the top type which means every object is an instance of Object, including null. In practice, I think this works OK. If you have a variable of type Object, the only operations you can perform on it are ones that all types support, like toString(). Even null supports those, so a non-nullable Object type isn’t needed to avoid type errors.

That covers most of the implications of the proposal as far as I can tell. To get more concrete, let’s see how we’d need to modify the spec and libs to support it:

Spec changes

I definitely don’t have the skills Gilad has at specifying these semantics precisely, but I’ll at least make an honest try. Most of the changes, as you’ll see, are simplifications. Null shows up as a special case in much of the spec. One of the reasons I like this proposal is that it eliminates most of those.

Section 10.2


The static type of null is ⊥.


The static type of null is Null.

Section 10.16 Assignment

In both:

In checked mode, it is a dynamic type error if o is not null and the interface induced by the class of o is not a subtype of the actual type (13.8.1) of v.


In checked mode, it is a dynamic type error if o is not null and the interface induced by the class of o is not a subtype of the static type of C.v.

remove “o is not null and”.

Section 10.13.2 Binding Actuals to Formals


In checked mode, it is a dynamic type error if oi is not null and the actual type (13.8.1) of pi is not a supertype of the type of oi,i ∈ 1..m.

remove “oi is not null and”. And from:

In checked mode, it is a dynamic type error if om+j is not null and the actual type (13.8.1) of qj is not a supertype of the type of om+j,j ∈ 1..l.

remove “om+j is not null and”.

Section 11.9 Try


A catch clause catch (T1 p1, T2 p2) s matches an object o if o is null or if the type of o is a subtype of T1.”

remove “o is null or”.

Then we need to add a section:

13.9 Nullable Types

A nullable type is a parameterized type that allows both values of the type parameter’s type or the singleton value of type Null, null.

Let A? be the nullable type of type A. Nullable types do not nest or wrap: B?? is equivalent to B? for any type B. The subtype relations are:

  • A <: A? (non-nullable is a subtype of a nullable)

  • Null <: A? (non-nullable is also a subtype of Null)

It is a static error to declare a variable of a non-nullable type without giving it an initializer whose static type is assignment compatible with the variable’s type.

Core library changes

This proposal implies some modification to the core lib APIs to be null-aware. There are two kinds of changes we’d need: minor changes to type annotations and a few actual semantic changes.

Type annotation changes

The minor change is that a few type annotations need to be tweaked. Operations that are defined to return something “or null” need to be made explicitly nullable.

For example, the Map<K,V> interface has a subscript operator (map[key]) that returns null if the key isn’t found. Right now its return type is declared to be V, the value type. It needs to be V? instead to explicitly permit that null.

Likewise, there are a number of methods that take named optional parameters whose types aren’t nullable, like:

class Expect {
  static void isFalse(actual, [String reason = null])
  // more...

Here, that String will need to be made nullable.

Semantic changes

The more intrusive change is that operations that implicitly create null entries in collections might need to be modified. For example, if you do:

var list = new List<int>(4);

then you create a list whose four elements are automatically set to null. That’s a problem here because the element type (int) is non-nullable.

The safest way to handle this is to change the constructor to let the user explicitly provide the value to initialize the new entries with. So instead of the above, you could do:

var list = new List<int>(4, fill: 1);
print(list); // [1, 1, 1, 1]

or maybe:

var list = new List<int>.generate(4, (index) => index * 2);
print(list); // [0, 2, 4, 6]

I may have missed something, but I believe List is the only type that needs any real API changes like this.


If you made it this far, you deserve a reward. Sadly, the best I can offer is a bullet list of what you’ve already read:

Do I have that right? Thoughts?